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Advanced Language Practice English Grammar and Vocabulary

Advanced Language Practice English Grammar and Vocabulary

Сумата се прибавя директно в кошницата




Grammar 1 Present time

Basic contrasts: present simple and present continuous State verbs and event (action or dynamic) verbs State verbs normally without a continuous form Di fference of meaning in stative and active verbs Other uses of present continuous Other uses of present simple

Grammar 2


Future time

Basic contrasts: will, going to, present continuous Future continuous Future perfect

Other ways of referring to the future Other future references

Grammar 3
Past time

Basic contrasts: past simple and past continuous

Past perfect simple and continuous

Used to and would

Unfulfilled past events

Polite forms

Contrast with present perfect

Grammar 4 Present perfect

Present perfect simple Present perfect continuous

Contrast of present perfect simple and present perfect continuous Time expressions with present perfect
Grammar 6 Passive 1


Using and not mentioning the agent

Grammar 7 Passive 2

Have and get something done, need doir, Passive^

Reporting verbs

Verbs with prepositions

Common contexts for the passive

Grammar 8 Conditionals
Basic usage: truths, real situations, hypothetical situations (present and past)
Variations: if only, unless, and other alternatives to if, past events with results in the present, should, were to, happen to, if it were not for, if it hadn't been for
Other ways of making a conditional sentence: supposing, otherwise, but for, if so, if not, colloquial omission of if, if and adjectives, (/meaning although
Grammar 9 Unreal time and subjunctives
It's time, it's high time Wishes
I'd rather and I'd sooner, I'd prefer As if, as though Suppose and imagine Formalsubjunctives Formulaic subjunctive
Grammar 11 Modals: present and future 65
Don't have to and must not: absence of obligation, obligation not to do something
Should: expectation, recommendation, criticism of an action,
uncertainty with verbs of thinking, with be and adjectives describing chance
after in case to emphasise unlikelihood
Could: possibility or uncertainty, with comparative adjectives to express possibility or impossibility, suggestions, unwillingness Can: criticism, capability
Must and can't: certainty, present time reference only
May mid might: although clauses, may/might as well, possibility or
uncertainty with try
Shall: certainty, what the speaker wants to happen Will: assumption, intention, refuse and insist Would: annoying habits, certainty Need: need to not a modal, need partly a modal Related non-modal expressions: had better, be bound to
Grammar 12 Modals: past 72
Had to and must have: past obligation, past certainty Should have and ought to have: expectation, criticism of an action, should have and verbs of thinking, with be and adjectives describing chance, polite expressions
Could have: past possibility or uncertainty, with comparative adjectives, unwillingness
Could: past permission or ability, compared with could have May have and can't have: certainty, with surely Would not: unwillingness
Would have: events in the past which did not happen, assumptions Needn't have and didn't need to: unnecessary actions done and not done Adverbs and modals: well, easily, obviously, really, just



Inversion after negative adverbials Inversion after so/such with that Inverted conditional sentences without if


Changing word order to change focus Adding words for emphasis Other means
CONSOLIDATION 3 Reported speech

Problems: reported speech with modals, with conditionals, don't think Reporting verbs

Functions: verbs that describe a function, verbs that describe actions Changes of viewpoint


Definite article (the), indefinite article (a/an), zero article Translation problems

Relative and non-finite clauses

Defining and non-defining clauses

Which and that

Who, whom, and whose

When and where

Omitting the relative pronoun

Omitting which/who + be

Clauses beginning with what and whatever

Non-finite clauses containing an -ing form

Verbs + infinitive or -ing

Verbs followed by either -ing or infinitive with to

Verbs with an object, followed by either -ing or infinitive with to

Verbs normally followed by infinitive with to

Verbs normally followed by -ing

Verbs followed by infinitive without to

Verbs followed by an object and to
CONSOLIDATION 4 Verbs + prepositions

Verbs followed by: in, for, of, with, from, on, against, about, out, at, to


Following adjectives: of, about, with, at, on, to, by, for, in, from Following nouns: on, to, over, with, for

Expressions beginning: in, with, at, on, beyond, by, for, out of, under, without, within, after

Grammar 23 Phrasal verbs 1  Add up to get up to 144
Grammar 24 Phrasal verbs 2  Give away to put up with 150
Grammar 25 Phrasal verbs 3 -  Rip off to work out 156
Grammar 27 Linking words and phrases  Text organisers: adding a point, developing a point, contrast, explaining reasons, making generalisations, giving new information 167
Grammar 28 Punctuation and spelling  Common errors Problem words  Words with similar spelling but different meanings Punctuation: commas, apostrophes, colons and semi-colons 172
Grammar 30 Further Practice 182
Ш-: - ft!
Vocabulary ~T Leisure activities 188
Vocabulary 2 Travel and movement 192
Vocabulary 3 News events 196
Vocabulary 4 Places 200
Vocabulary 5 Media and advertising 204
Vocabulary 6 The natural world 208
Vocabulary 7 Work 211
Vocabulary 8 Business and money 215
Vocabulary 9 People and relationships 219
Vocabulary 10 Social problems 223
Vocabulary 11 Entertainment 227
Vocabulary 12 Government and society 231
Vocabulary 13 Health and the body 235
Vocabulary 14 World issues 239
Vocabulary 15 Thinking and feeling 243
Vocabulary 16 Technology 247
Vocabulary 17 Quality and quantity 250
Vocabulary 18 Education 254
Vocabulary 19 Word formation 258
Vocabulary 20 Multiple meaning 262