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Advanced language practice Michael Vince

Advanced language practice Michael Vince

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Introduction viii
Uniti Tense consolidation: present time l
Present simple and present continuous 1
facts, habits, states, temporary actions, actions happening at the moment of speaking
State verbs and event (action or dynamic) verbs 1
state verbs normally without a continuous form
difference of meaning in stative and active Other uses of present continuous 2
temporary or repeated actions
complaints about bad habits
verbs describing change and development Other uses of present simple 2
making declarations, headlines, instructions and itineraries
summaries of events, historic present
Unit 2 Tense consolidation: future time 7
Will, Going to, present continuous: basic contrasts 7 « will: predictive will, assumption, immediate decision
be going to: intentions and plans, present cause
present continuous: fixed arrangements
speaker preference
Future continuous 7
an event happening at a future point
events which will happen ‘anyway’
fixed arrangements and plans Future perfect 8
time which we look back at from a future point
Other ways of referring to the future 8
is/are to be, be about to, be on the point of, be due to
present simple in future time clauses
present perfect when the completion of an event is emphasised
present simple for fixed events not simply the wishes of the speaker
Other future references 9
hope, verbs of thinking, just, shall
Unit 3 Tense consolidation: past time 14
Past simple and past continuous 14
past simple: completed actions, habits, states
past continuous: temporary actions, interrupted actions, background description, changing states, repeated actions: criticism
not used to describe habitual actions
Past perfect simple and continuous 14
past perfect tenses: events in the past before other events in the past
past perfect continuous: contrasts as between past simple and past continuous, indirect speech
Used to and would 15
used to: contrast with the present, negative forms, no present time reference
would: repeated actions not states, contrasted with used to, contexts of use
Unfulfilled past events 15
was going to, was thinking of, was about to, was to have done
Polite forms 16
with wonder
Contrasts with present perfect
« (see Unit 4)
Unreal time
(see Units 8 and 9 for past tense forms used to express unreal time)
Unit 4 Tense consolidation: present perfect 20
Present perfect simple 20
recent events without a definite time reference, indefinite events, indefinite events with an obvious result in the present, a state lasting up to the present, a habitual action in a period of time up to the present
contrasts with past simple, speaker choice
Present perfect continuous 20
a state lasting up to the present moment, an incomplete activity, to emphasise duration, a recently finished activity, a repeated activity
contrasts with present perfect simple: choice of verb, completion and incompletion
Time expressions with present perfect 21
contrast with past simple may depend on choice of time expression
some time expressions are not associated with a particular tense
Unit 6 Passive 1 30
Basic uses 30


Using and not mentioning the agent 31
change of focus, unknown agent, generalised agent obvious agent
unimportant agent, impersonality
Unit 7 Passive 2 35
Have and get something done, need doing 35
have something done, get something done, need doing
Passive get 35
forming the passive with get in spoken language
Reporting verbs 35
. • present reference, past reference, past reporting verbs, passive infinitive, verbs with two objects, continuous infinitive
Verbs with prepositions 36
ending a sentence with a preposition, by and with, be made to
verbs followed by with, by or in.
Common contexts for the passive 37
formality, impersonality
Unit 8 Conditionals and if- sentences 41
Basic contrasts 41
wrhat is always true: present + present
what was always true: past + past
real situations: present + will
hypothetical situations: past + would
hypothetical past situations: past perfect + would have
with modals
if only
unless, and other alternatives to if: as long as, so long as, provided
only if, even if
past events with results in the present
colloquial past situations
Other tenses in conditional sentences 42
go mg to
present perfect
doubt and uncertainty t should
were to
happen to
if it were not for, if it hadn't been for
will and would: politeness and emphasis
Other ways of making a conditional sentence 43
supposing, otherwise
but for
if so, if not
colloquial omission of if
if and adjectives
if meaning although
Unit 9 Unreal tenses and subjunctives 48
IPs time 48
it's time, it's high time, was and were
Wishes 48
present, would and could, past, wish and hope
Fd rather 49
I’d rather and I’d sooner, I'd prefer
As if, as though 49
real and unreal, present and past
Suppose and imagine 49
understood conditions, present or past
Formal subjunctives 50
insist, demand, suggest, require
it is necessary, essential, important
less formal usage with should, past tense, or infinitive
Formulaic subjunctive 50
God Save the Queen, be that as it may, come what may
Unit 11 Modal auxiliaries 1: present/future 59
Don’t have to and must not 59
® absence of obligation, obligation not to do something
Should 59
expectation, recommendation, criticism of an action, uncertainty
with verbs ot trunking, with he and adjectives describing chance
« after in case to emphasise unlikelihood
Could 59
possiblity or uncertainty, with comparative adjectives to express possibility or impossibility, suggestions, unwillingness
Can 60
criticism, capability
Must and can’t 60
certainty, present time reference only
May and might 60
although clauses, may/might as well, possibility or uncertainty
with try
Shall 60
certainty, what the speaker wants to happen
Will 61
assumption, intention, refuse and insist
Would 61
annoying habits, certainty, with adjectives to express a tentative action
Need 61
need to not a modal, need partly a modal
Related пол-modal expressions 61
had better, be bound to
Unit 12 Modal auxiliaries 2: past 65
Had to and must have 65
past obligation, past certainty
Should have and ought to have 65
expectation, criticism of an action, should have and verbs of thinking
with be and adjectives describing chance, polite expressions
Could have 65 .
past possibility or uncertainty, with comparative adjectives,
Could 66
past permission or ability, compared with could have
May have and might have 66
past possibility, uncertainty, annoyance, irony
Must have and can’t have 66
certainty, with surely
Would not 66
Would have 66
events in the past wfiich did not happen, assumptions
Needn 4 have and didn 4 need to 66
unnecessary actions done and not done
Adverbs and modals 67
well, easily, obviously, really, just
Unit 13 Inversion 71
Inversion 71
using a question form of the main verb, changing the normal position of verb and subject
Inversion after negative adverbials 71
context of use: never, rarely, seldom;
hardly, barely, scarcely, no sooner, phrases containing no/not, little
Inversion after so that, such that 72
context of use, so, such, inversion rules
Inverted conditional sentences without if 72
sentences beginning Were..., Should..., Had...,
inversion after as, formal uses
inversion after so, neither, nor,echoing statements
Unit 14 Emphasis 77
Changing word order to change focus 77
passive, fronting and inversion, may clauses, cleft and pseudo cleft sentences beginning It..., or with what clauses, or with all
Adding words for emphasis 78
own, very and indeed, negatives, the, question words ending -ever
auxiliary do, adverbs and adjectives, echoing phrases with so
Other means 79
time phrases, repetition of main verb, starting a sentence with a possessive pronoun
Unit 16 Indirect speech and reporting 89
Problems 89
indirect speech with modals, with conditional», don't think, past tenses
Reporting verbs 90
followed by that + clause, followed by person +to, followed by subjunctive or should, other types, that + clause containing would
» verbs used impersonally with it
Functions 91
verbs that describe a function, verbs that describe actions
Changes of viewpoint :this and that 91
time, place, person
Unit 17 Articles 95
Definite article 95
classes, national groups, other groups, unique objects, titles
other titles, musical instruments, emphatic use, geographical names
® place names, most and the most, importance of context
Indefinite article 97
jobs, measuring, unknown people
Zero article 97
names, unique organisations, streets
Translation problems 97
problems with use of the article
Unit 18 Relative/non-finite clauses 101
Defining and non-defining 101
defining, non-defining
Which and that 101
which in defining clauses, which in non-defining clauses, which after prepositions, that instead of who
Who and whom 101
formal use of whom, whom after prepositions
Whose 102
of whom
When and where 102
non-defining, defining
Omitting the relative 102
in defining object clauses, sentences ending in a preposition or phrasal verb in defining clauses
Omitting which/who + be 102
the only one, the first one, the last one Words referring to a previous clause 102
which, at which time/point, in which case, by which time, in which event
Clauses beginning with what and whatever 102
meaning the thing or things which
whatever, whichever, whoever
Non-finite clauses containing an -ing form 103
actions happening at the same time
actions happening one after the other
an event which is the result of another event
shortening passive constructions
Unit 19 Verbs followed by -ingor infinitive 107 Verbs followed by either -ing or infinitive with to 107
can’t bear, hate, like, love, prefer,attempt, begin, continue, intend etc,
forget and remember, try, go on, mean, regret
stop, hear, see and watch
Verbs with an object, followed by either -ing or infinitive with to 108
admit, allow, etc, consider, imagine, require
Verbs normally followed by infinitive with to 109
agree, etc
Verbs normally followed by -ing 109
appreciate, etc
Verbs followed by infinitive without to 110
help, make, let
Verbs followed by an object and to 110
advise, etc
Unit 23 Phrasal verbs 1 130 Voc
Add up to get up to 1 Li I
Unit 24 Phrasal verbs 2 136 ■ 2 T: j
Give away to put up with 3 N I  4 P
Unit 25 Phrasal verbs 3 142 5 IV  6 T j-
Rip off to work out
Unit 26 PROGRESS TEST 147 7 E |
Unit 27 Text features 1 152 ; 8 Е 1
Reference words 152 9 Г
• this, that, it 10 si
• such
Text organisers 152 11 i I
• adding a point ■ ■ 12. < j
• contrast 13 1 j
• logical relations
Collocations 153 14 1
Problems with plurals 153
• news, means, adjectival phrases 15 ' |  16 • {
Unit 28 Text features 2 157 17 ■ i
Organisers 157
• following points, related phrases 18 !
Modifying words and phrases 157 • intensifying a point, giving an opinion,
modifying an opinion, making assertions, giving 19 |
examples, linking cause and effect, summarising, that
meaning ‘the one’ 20 (.
Words commonly mis-spelled 162
problem words, US English and GB English spelling
words with similar spelling but different meanings
words with the same pronunciation butdifferent spelling and meaning
Punctuation 163
colons and semi-colons
Unit 29 Text features 3 162
Unit 21 Verbs followed by prepositions 119
Verbs followed by: in, for, of with, from, on, against, about, out, at, to
Unit 22 Prepositions following adjectives, and in prepositional phrases 125
Following adjectives: of, about, with, at, on, to, by, for, in, from 125
Following nouns: on, to, over, with, for 125 Expressions beginning: in, with, at, on, beyond, by, for, out of, under, without, within, after 12
1 Leisure Activities 173
2 Travel and Movement 176
3 News Events 179
4 Places 183
5 Media and Advertising 186
6 The Natural World 189
7 Education and Work 192
8 Business and Money 196
9 People and Relationships 199
10 Social Problems 203
11 Arts and Entertainment 206
12 Government and Society 209
13 Health and the Body 213
14 World Issues 216
15 Thinking and Feeling 220
16 Technology 224
17 Quality and Quantity 227
18 Word Formation 1 230
words with more than one meaning, word formation, prefixes, adverbs, suffixes, compound words
19 Word Formation 2 232
suffixes, word formation, suffixes, compound words
20 Word Formation 3 235
words easily confused, word formation, suffixes,