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Applied Groundwater Modeling Anderson Woessner

Applied Groundwater Modeling Anderson Woessner

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CONTENTS
LIST OF BOXES PREFACE >
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
 
1.1 What Is a Model? 2
 
1.2 Why Model? 4
 
1.3 Establishing the Purpose 5
 
1.4 Modeling Protocol 6
 
1.5 Case Studies 9
 
Problems 10
 
CHAPTER 2
 
EQUATIONS AND NUMERICAL METHODS
 
2.1 Governing Equations 12
 
Aquifer versus Flow System Viewpoints 1 Derivation of the Governing Equations 16
 
2.2 Numerical Methods 20
 
Problems 26
 
CHAPTER 3
 
THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL AND GRID DESIGN
 
3.1 Building the Conceptual Model 28
Preparing the Water Budget 38 Defining the Flow System 38
 
3.2 Types of Models 38
 
Two-Dimensional Areal Models 39 Quasi Three-Dimensional Models 44
 
Profile and Full Three-Dimensional Models
 
3.3 Laying Out the Grid 46
 
Types of Grids 46
 
Defining Model Layers 48 Orienting the Grid 51
 
Spatial Scales 59
 
3.4 Assigning Parameter Values 68
 
Data Needs 68
 
Transferring Field Data to the Grid 73
 
Kriging 73
 
Problems 92
 
CHAPTER 4 BOUNDARIES
 
4.1 Types of Boundaries 97
 
4.2 Setting Boundaries 100
 
4.3 Simulating Boundaries 106
 
Specified Head 106
 
Specified Flow 107
 
Head-Dependent Flow 117
 
Special Problems 121
 
4.4 Internal Boundaries 123
 
Problems 143
 
CHAPTER 5
 
SOURCES AND SINKS
 
5.1 Injection and Pumping Wells 147
 
Finite Difference Models 147
 
Finite Element Models 151
 
5.2 Flux across the Water Table 151
 
Estimating Water Table Fluxes 151 Finite Difference Models 158
 
Finite Element Models 159
Preparing the Water Budget 38 Defining the Flow System 38
 
3.2 Types of Models 38
 
Two-Dimensional Areal Models 39 Quasi Three-Dimensional Models 44
 
Profile and Full Three-Dimensional Models
 
3.3 Laying Out the Grid 46
 
Types of Grids 46
 
Defining Model Layers 48 Orienting the Grid 51
 
Spatial Scales 59
 
3.4 Assigning Parameter Values 68
 
Data Needs 68
 
Transferring Field Data to the Grid 73
 
Kriging 73
 
Problems 92
 
CHAPTER 4 BOUNDARIES
 
4.1 Types of Boundaries 97
 
4.2 Setting Boundaries 100
 
4.3 Simulating Boundaries 106
 
Specified Head 106
 
Specified Flow 107
 
Head-Dependent Flow 117
 
Special Problems 121
 
4.4 Internal Boundaries 123
 
Problems 143
 
CHAPTER 5
 
SOURCES AND SINKS
 
5.1 Injection and Pumping Wells 147
 
Finite Difference Models 147
 
Finite Element Models 151
 
5.2 Flux across the Water Table 151
 
Estimating Water Table Fluxes 151 Finite Difference Models 158
 
Finite Element Models 159
Preparing the Water Budget 38 Defining the Flow System 38
 
3.2 Types of Models 38
 
Two-Dimensional Areal Models 39 Quasi Three-Dimensional Models 44
 
Profile and Full Three-Dimensional Models
 
3.3 Laying Out the Grid 46
 
Types of Grids 46
 
Defining Model Layers 48 Orienting the Grid 51
 
Spatial Scales 59
 
3.4 Assigning Parameter Values 68
 
Data Needs 68
 
Transferring Field Data to the Grid 73
 
Kriging 73
 
Problems 92
 
CHAPTER 4 BOUNDARIES
 
4.1 Types of Boundaries 97
 
4.2 Setting Boundaries 100
 
4.3 Simulating Boundaries 106
 
Specified Head 106
 
Specified Flow 107
 
Head-Dependent Flow 117
 
Special Problems 121
 
4.4 Internal Boundaries 123
 
Problems 143
 
CHAPTER 5
 
SOURCES AND SINKS
 
5.1 Injection and Pumping Wells 147
 
Finite Difference Models 147
 
Finite Element Models 151
 
5.2 Flux across the Water Table 151
 
Estimating Water Table Fluxes 151 Finite Difference Models 158
 
Finite Element Models 159
Preparing the Water Budget 38 Defining the Flow System 38
 
3.2 Types of Models 38
 
Two-Dimensional Areal Models 39 Quasi Three-Dimensional Models 44
 
Profile and Full Three-Dimensional Models
 
3.3 Laying Out the Grid 46
 
Types of Grids 46
 
Defining Model Layers 48 Orienting the Grid 51
 
Spatial Scales 59
 
3.4 Assigning Parameter Values 68
 
Data Needs 68
 
Transferring Field Data to the Grid 73
 
Kriging 73
 
Problems 92
 
CHAPTER 4 BOUNDARIES
 
4.1 Types of Boundaries 97
 
4.2 Setting Boundaries 100
 
4.3 Simulating Boundaries 106
 
Specified Head 106
 
Specified Flow 107
 
Head-Dependent Flow 117
 
Special Problems 121
 
4.4 Internal Boundaries 123
 
Problems 143
 
CHAPTER 5
 
SOURCES AND SINKS
 
5.1 Injection and Pumping Wells 147
 
Finite Difference Models 147
 
Finite Element Models 151
 
5.2 Flux across the Water Table 151
 
Estimating Water Table Fluxes 151 Finite Difference Models 158
 
Finite Element Models 159
5.3 Leakage Problems
CHAPTER 6 PROFILE MODELS
 
6.1 Orienting the Profile 172
 
6.2 Parameter Adjustment for Profile Modeling
 
6.3 Axisymmetric Profiles 177
 
6.4 The Moving Boundary Problem 177 Problems 191
CHAPTER 7
 
SPECIAL NEEDS FOR TRANSIENT SIMULATIONS
 
7.1 Storage Parameters 195
 
7.2 Initial Conditions 199
 
7.3 Boundary Conditions 202
 
7.4 Discretizing Time 204
 
Choosing the Time Step 204
 
Stress Periods 206
 
Problems 210
 
CHAPTER 8
 
MODEL EXECUTION
 
AND THE CALIBRATION PROCESS
 
8.1 Code Selection 215
 
8.2 Initiating Model Execution 217
 
Error Criterion 219
 
8.3 The Calibration Process 223
 
Sample Information 229
 
Prior Information 230
 
Calibration Techniques 231
 
8.4 Evaluating the Calibration 236
 
Traditional Measures of Calibration 236 Calibration Level and Distribution of Error 242 Sensitivity Analysis 246
 
Model Verification 253
 
Summary 256
CHAPTER 9
 
DOCUMENTING AND REPORTING YOUR MODELING STUDY
 
9.1 Documenting the Modeling Effort 275
 
9.2 The Modeling Report 276
 
Title 280
 
Introductory Material 280
 
Hydrogeologic Setting and Conceptual Model 281 Model Design and Results 282 Model Limitations 284 Summary and Conclusions 284
 
Appendices 284
 
Problems 285
 
CHAPTER 10
 
POSTAUDITS: HOW GOOD ARE PREDICTIONS?
 
10.1 Importance of the Conceptual Model 287
 
Salt River and Lower Santa Cruz River Basins, Arizona Blue River Basin, Nebraska 288
 
Arkansas River Valley, Southeastern Colorado 289 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory 291
 
10.2 Lessons from Postaudits 292
 
10.3 Crisis Mode versus Management Mode 293
 
Problems 294
 
CHAPTER 11
 
PARTICLE TRACKING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW AND ADVECTIVE TRANSPORT OF CONTAMINANTS
 
11.1 Introduction 295
 
11.2 Tracking Methods 296
 
Interpolation Schemes 297
 
Tracking Schemes 299
 
11.3 Particle Tracking Codes 301
11.4 Applications 303
 
Flow System Analysis 303 Contaminant Tracking 309 Delineation of Capture Zones 310 Problems 314
 
CHAPTER 12 ADVANCED TOPICS
 
12.1 Introduction 316
 
12.2 Flow Nets 318
 
12.3 Unsaturated Flow 321
 
12.4 Multiphase Flow 324
 
12.5 Solute Transport 325
 
12.6 Fractured Media 328
 
Equivalent Porous Medium 329 Discrete Fractures 331
 
Dual Porosity 332
 
Summary 332 Karst Systems 332
 
12.7 Density-Dependent Flow of Miscible Fluids
 
12.8 Other Models 336
 
Problems 340
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