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Clinical Pathophysiology made ridiculously simple

Clinical Pathophysiology made ridiculously simple

Сумата се прибавя директно в кошницата

Chapter Outlines
Chapter 1. The Cardiovascular System
Anatomical Overview
Heart Failure
Left Heart Failure
Right Heart Failure
Symptoms and Signs of Heart Failure
Preload, Afterload, and Treatment
of Heart Failure
The Kidney in Heart Failure
The Four Components of the Heart
and Their Diseases
Diseases of the Heart Muscle
Cardiac Hypertrophy
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
Cardiac Dilatation
The Valves and Their Diseases: Stenosis
and Regurgitation
Aortic Valve
Aortic Stenosis
Aortic Regurgitation
Mitral Valve
Mitral Stenosis
Mitral Regurgitation
Tricuspid Valve
■ Tricuspid Stenosis
Tricuspid Regurgitation
Pulmonary Valve
Pulmonic Stenosis
Pulmonic Regurgitation
Review of Valves I: Review by Pathology
Review of Valves II: Review by Murmur
Diseases of the Electrical System: Arrhythmias ..
Bradyarrhythmia (Bradycardia)
Slow SA Node
Abnormal Conduction (Heart Block)
Treatment of Bradycardia
Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias
Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias
Treatment of Tachyarrhythmia
' Review of Arrhythmias
Diseases of the Heart’s Vasculature:
Angina and Myocardial Infarction
Vascular Disease Outside the Heart:
Peripheral Arteries and Aorta
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Atherosclerosis of the Aorta
. Aortic Aneurysm
Aortic Dissection
Lipids and Lipid-Lowering Drugs
Vasculitis 24
Hypertension 24
Cardiac Infection, Inflammation, and Neoplasia 27
Endocarditis    27
Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease .. 28
Myocarditis 28
Pericarditis 28
Cardiac Neoplasia 28
Atrial Myxoma 28
Congenital Heart Disease 29
Fetal Circulation 29
Classification of Congenital Heart Diseases 30
Cyanotic Heart Disease 30
Tetralogy of Fallot 30
Transposition of the Great Arteries 30
Other Causes of Cyanotic Heart Disease 31
Noncyanotic Congenital Heart Disease 31
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) and
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) 31
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) 32
Pulmonic Stenosis 33
Congenital Aortic Stenosis   33
Coarctation of the Aorta 33
Review of Congenital Heart Disease 34
Chapter 2. The Pulmonary System 35
Components of the Pulmonary System 35
Alveolar Sac/Airway 36
Membrane 36
Blood Vessels 36
Obstructive and Restrictive Lung Disease 37
Obstructive Lung Disease 37
Emphysema 37
Pulmonary Function Testing 37
Chronic Bronchitis 38
Asthma 38
Cystic Fibrosis 40
Bronchiectasis 40
Restrictive Lung Disease   40
Review of Obstructive and Restrictive
Lung Disease 41
Pulmonary Hypertension 41
Respiratory Infections 42
Rhinitis    42
Sinusitis 42
Pharyngitis 43
Laryngitis 43
Epiglottitis 43
Bronchitis 44
Bronchiolitis 44
Pneumonitis 44
Lung Cancer
Diseases of the Pleura and Pleural Space —
Pleuritis (Pleurisy)
Pleural Effusion
Chylothorax, Hemothorax, and Pneumothorax .
Pulmonary Physical Exam
Fremitus, Egophony, and Whisper Pectoriloquy Clubbing
Chapter 3. The Renal System
Overview of Kidney Function
Acute Renal Failure
Prerenai Failure
Intrinsic Renal Failure
Laboratory Distinction Between Prerenai
and Intrinsic Renal Failure
Serum BUN/Creatinine Ratio
Urine sodium
Fractional Excretion of Sodium (FENa)
Postrenal Failure
Causes of Intrinsic Renal Pathology:
Diseases of Tubules and Glomeruli
Nephrotic Syndrome
Nephritic Syndrome
Chronic Renal Failure
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and Urinalysis
Tumors of the Urinary Tract
Fluids and Electrolytes
Basic Concepts
Hypernatremia and Hyponatremia
Hypervolemic Hypernatremia
Hypovolemic Hypernatremia
Euvolemic Hypernatremia
Hypervolemic Hyponatremia
Hypovolemic Hyponatremia
Euvolemic Hyponatremia
Hyperosmolar Hyponatremia
Hyperkalemia and Hypokalemia
Acid-Base Pathophysiology
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Metabolic Acidosis
The Anion Gap
Urine Anion Gap 68
Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA) 68
Overall Algorithm for Acid-Base Diagnosis .. 69
Chapter 4. The Gastrointestinal System 71
Anatomical Overview 71
Diseases of the Esophagus 72
Obstruction 72
Muscle 72
Failure to Contract    72
Failure to Relax 73
Failure to Contract and Relax: Achalasia ... 73
Diverticula 73
Reflux 73
Other Causes of Esophagitis 73
Esophageal Cancer 73
Esophageal Varices 73
Diseases of the Stomach 74
Peptic Ulcer Disease 74
Other Causes of Gastritis 77
Loss of Intrinsic Factor 77
Obstruction 77
Gastroparesis 77
Gastric Cancer 78
Diseases of the Small Intestine   78
Malabsorption 78
Obstruction 79
Small Bowel Tumors 79
Diseases of the Large Intestine 79
Hirschprung's disease 79
Diverticula 79
Diarrhea 80
Colon Cancer 80
Colitis 80
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD):
Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis 80
Upper and Lower Gl Bleeding 81
Diseases of the Liver 82
Overview of Liver Function 82
Bilirubin and Jaundice 82
Liver Function Tests 83
AST, ALT, and Alkaline Phosphatase 83
Bilirubin, Albumin, and Prothrombin Time 83
Diseases of the Liver Parenchyma 84
Viral Hepatitis 84
Drug Reactions    84
Fatty Liver (Hepatic Steatosis) 84
Autoimmune Hepatitis    85
Hemochromatosis 85
Wilson’s Disease 85
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency 85
Hepatic Neoplasm 85
Diseases of the Liver Vasculature:
Portal Hypertension 85
Ascites 86
Varices 86
Diseases of the Gall Bladder and Bile Ducts ..
Gall Stones (Cholelithiasis)
Cancer of the Bile Ducts (Cholangiocarcinoma) Inflammatory Diseases of the Biliary System ..
Biliary atresia
Diseases of the Pancreas
Pancreatic Tumors
Approach to Abdominal Pain
Diagnosis of Abdominal Pain
Physical Exam
Laboratory Tests
Imaging and Endoscopy
Chapter 5. The Endocrine System
General Principles
Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer
Adrenal Glands
Hyper- and Hypoaldosteronism
Cushing's Syndrome
Adrenal Insufficiency
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN)
Pituitary Gland
Diseases of the Anterior Pituitary
Pituitary Adenomas and Hyperpituitarism
ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas
TSH-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas
Growth Hormone Adenomas
and Acromegaly
LH/FSH-Secreting Tumors
Prolactin-Secreting Adenomas
Diseases of the Posterior Pituitary
The Endocrine Pancreas and Glucose
Diabetes Mellitus
Calcium, the Parathyroids, and Bone
Elevated PTH
Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism
PTH-related Protein (PTHrP)
Vitamin D-Induced Hypercalcemia
Bone Breakdown
Symptoms and Signs of Hypercalcemia
Treatment of Hypercalcemia
Decreased PTH: Hypoparathyroidism and
Pseudohypoparathyroidism 114
Vitamin D Deficiency 114
Hungry Bone Syndrome 114
Binding of Calcium 115
Hypoalbuminemia 115
Symptoms and Signs of Hypocalcemia 115
Treatment of Hypocalcemia    115
Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia and Hypercaiciuric
Hypocalcemia 115
Diseases of Bone 115
Thickened Bones: Osteopetrosis 116
Weakened Bones: Osteoporosis and
Osteomalacia 116
Thickened and Weakened Bones:
Paget’s Disease (Osteitis Deformans) 116
Infection of Bone: Osteomyelitis 116
Tumors of Bone 116
Chapter 6. The Hematologic System 118
Components of the Hematologic System 118
Red Blood Cells 118
Too Few RBCs: Anemia 118
Symptoms and Signs of Anemia 118
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit   118
Causes of Anemia 119
Decreased Production of RBCs 119
Bone Marrow Failure, Rena! Failure,
Aplastic Anemia 119
Iron, B12 and Folate Deficiency 119
Iron Deficiency Anemia 120
Folate and B12 Deficiency 120
Increased Loss of RBCs: Bleeding
and Hemolysis 122
Bleeding 122
Hemolysis 122
Extracorpuscular Defects 122
Intracorpuscular Defects: Problems with
RBC Components 122
Hemoglobin 122
Sickle Cell Anemia 122
Thalassemia 122
Membrane 122
Metabolic Pathways 123
Lab Findings in Hemolysis 123
Anemia of Chronic Disease 124
Blood Smear 124
Treatment of Anemia 125
Review of Anemia 125
Too Many RBCs: Polycythemia 125
Causes of Polycythemia 125
Hyperproliferative States of the Bone Marrow: Polycythemia Vera ..125
Elevated EPO 125
Lab Findings in Polycythemia 126
Treatment of Polycythemia 126
White Blood Cells and Immunology
Decreased Number of WBCs
Decreased Function of WBCs
Increased Neutrophils
Decreased Neutrophils
Increased Lymphocytes
Decreased Lymphocytes
Basophils, Mast Cells, and Eosinophils
The Hematologic Malignancies of WBC Lineage
Multiple Myeloma
Review of WBCs
Platelets and Coagulation Factors
Hypocoagulable States: Tendency to Bleed
Decreased Coagulation Factors
Decreased Platelet Function or Number
Platelet Dysfunction
Decreased Platelet Number:
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic
Purpura (TTP/HUS)
Disseminated Intravascular
Coagulation (DIC)
Summary of Hypocoagulable States
Hypercoagulable States: Tendency to Clot
Chapter 7. The Nervous System
Anatomical Overview
Neuroanatomy and Localization
Motor and Sensory Pathways
Motor Pathway: Upper Motor Neurons
vs. Lower Motor Neurons
Sensory Pathways
Summary of Motor and Sensory Systems
Brainstem and Cranial Nerves
Cranial Nerves
Cranial Nerve I (Olfactory)
Cranial Nerve II (Optic)
Cranial Nerve III (Oculomotor)
Cranial Nerve IV (Trochlear)
Cranial Nerve V (Trigeminal)
Cranial Nerve VI (Abducens)
Cranial Nerve VII (Facial)
Cranial Nerve VIII (Vestibulocochlear)
Cranial Nerve IX (Glossopharyngeal)
Cranial Nerve X (Vagus)
Cranial Nerve XI (Spinal Accessory)
Cranial Nerve XII (Hypoglossal)
Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia 148
Cerebellum 148
Basal Ganglia 148
Parkinson’s Disease 150
Diseases of the Brain 150
Elevated Intracranial Pressure 152
Hydrocephalus 152
Pseudotumor Cerebri 152
Intracranial Infection and Bleeding 152
Meningeal Signs 153
Epidural Bleeding and Infection 153
Epidural Hematomas 153
Epidural Abscesses 153
Subdural Bleeding and Infection 154
Subdural Hematomas 154
Subdural Abscesses 154
Subarachnoid Bleeding and Infection 154
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 154
Meningitis 154
Bleeding and Infection in the Brain 154
Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage 154
Brain Abscess 154
Encephalitis 154
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Examination 155
Central Nervous System Tumors 155
Stroke 155
Cerebral Vasculature 156
Multiple Sclerosis 158
Diseases of the Spinal Cord 159
Nerve Root Compression 159
Diseases of Lower Motor Neurons,
Neuromuscular Junction, and Muscle 160
Diseases of Anterior Horn Cells 161
Diseases of Peripheral Nerves 161
Diseases of the Neuromuscular Junction 161
Myasthenia Gravis 161
Lambert-Eaton Syndrome 162
Diseases of the Muscle 162
Chapter 8. Rheumatology 163
Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases 163
Immunosuppressive and
Anti-Inflammatory Drugs 163
Joint Disease: Arthritis 163
Synovial Fluid Analysis 165
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) 165
Osteoarthritis (OA) 165
Spondyloarthropathies 165
Infectious Arthritis — 165
Gout and Pseudogout
Chapter 9. Male and Female Reproductive Systems 169
Male Reproductive Organ Pathophysiology 169
Prostate 169
Prostatitis 169
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy 169
Prostate Cancer 169
Testicles 169
Orchitis 169
Torsion 170
Testicular Cancer 170
Erectile Dysfunction 170
Female Reproductive Organ Pathophysiology .... 170
The Menstrual Cycle, Oral Contraceptives, and Amenorrhea 170
The Menstrual Cycle
Inflammation of the Female Genital Tract .
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) — Neoplasia of the Female Genital Tract ... Other Diseases of the Female Genital Tract
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Diseases of the Breasts
Chapter 10. Cases