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Aborigines, mandibles, example of, 10f Absolute intrusion, 227f AcceleDent vibratory system, 263, 263f Accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (AOO), 260 bone grafting in, 26lf corticotomy in, 26lf Accelerated tooth movement, 260—264 Accommodation, 55 Achondroplasia rarity of, l22

severity, midface deficiency in, 123f Ackerman-Proffit scheme, elements (combination),


Acquisition, of behavior, 51

Acromegaly, profile view/cephalometric radiograph

in, 119f

Acrylic caps, 466f Acrylic retainer, 435f Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, 630 Activator, 312

bulk of, removal of, 313f tooth-borne passive appliance, 312f Activator (Andresen), 312 Active aligners, development of, 310—312, 311f Active plates, for arch expansion, 312 Active retainers, 591—594

modified functional appliances as, 594 “Active retention”, 569 “Active stabilization”, 579 Active tooth-borne functional appliances, 313 Adams, Philip, 311

Adams clasp, clinical adjustments of, 311f Adenoid facies

appearance of, 131 characterization of, 132f Adenoidectomy, requirement of, 134 Adenoids, size of, 132 Adjacent teeth, space (diastema), 5f Adjunctive facial procedures, 675—680 Adjunctive orthodontics

with partial fixed appliance, 600 treatment sequence, 602f Adjunctive orthodontic treatment

biomechanical considerations for, 601—602

comprehensive versus, 599—600

diagnostic considerations for, 600, 601f

goals of, 600

indication for, 611

principles of, 600—603

procedures for, 603—614

timing and sequence of, 602—603, 602f

treatment planning considerations for, 600,


Adjunctive periodontal surgery, 569—570
Page numbered followed by f indicate figures; t, tables; b, boxes.
Adolescence, 84—87

aging changes in, 96—104 alignment, changes in, 98—103 complexity of, 54f

comprehensive treatment in, 528—555

dentofacial complex, growth patterns in, 88—96

disturbances arising in, 116

early permanent dentition years, 84—87

facial soft tissues, changes in, 98

girls, stages, 86

growth at

affected by racial, ethnic, and national variables, 87f cessation of, 86 velocity curves for, 86f growth modification

fixed functional appliances for, 541 headgear for, 541, 542f-543f imaginary audience, influence, 57 incisor display at, age function, 99f initiation of, 84-85 jaw growth, rotation of, 90-96 maturational changes in, 96-104 nasomaxillary complex, growth of, 88 occlusion, changes in, 98-103 permanent teeth, crown height (increase), 105f physical development of, 54 physical growth, seasonal/cultural factors of, 86 Adolescents

aggressive periodontitis in, 147f Class II correction in, 538-551 differential growth in, 541 comprehensive treatment in, 501-527 growth, secondary sexual characteristics versus, 150t

jaws, growth of, spurt in, 87f maxilla in, transverse force across, 212f palatal expansion in, 433-434 Adult-onset rheumatoid arthritis, impact of, 237 Adults

biomechanical considerations for, 601-602 chewing movements, contrasts of, 65f chewing pattern of, 65 complex treatment procedures in, 634-654 comprehensive orthodontic treatment in, 614-654

gingival grafting, 624f

psychologic considerations for, 614-616, 616f cooperation, problem in, 146 facial anthropometric measurements in, 151t facial growth in, 96-98 growth changes in, 97f—98f guidance of, 55 occlusal equilibrium, 74 orthodontic treatment, comparison, 16f periodontal evaluation for, 619 periodontically compromised, 601f swallow pattern, appearance of, 130 treatment for, 597 Aggressive periodontitis, 147f
Airway, establishment of, 64 Alignment

arch expansion for, 506, 506f—509f arches, choice of, principles of, 503—504, 505f archwires, properties of, 501—503, 502f-504f changes in, adolescence, 98—103 in Class I crowding/protrusion, 501—512 crowding

space analysis, 172 symmetric, 502 evaluation of, 200 of impacted teeth, 512—517 in nonextraction, 506 premolar extraction in, 506 pretreatment, with functional appliances,

468-470, 469f rectangular archwire for, 504f sequence of, 505f

space, digitized dental casts in, 502f of unerupted teeth, 512-517 Alizarin (dye), 28 injections of, 28f specimen, example of, 33f AlloDerm, use of, 679 Alveolar bone

bending of, 98-101 loss of, 267f

supporting structure, construction of, 124-125 Alveolar bone height tendency for, 273

tooth position and, relationship of, 272-273 treatment on, effects of, 272-273 Alveolar process, ultrasound and, 263 Alveolar segments, repositioning of, 672, 673f American standard cephalometric arrangement, diagrammatic representation of, 174f Anatomic drawings, facial structural components (superimposition), 174f Anatomic porion, 178-179 Anatomically complete template, 184 ANB angle, 179 ANB limitations, 182 Anchor teeth

displacement, minimization of, 266f PDL pressure in, 266f response of, 266f Anchorage

availability of, 610

with bone screws, 644f, 649f

cortical, 267

dental, 442-444

for distal movement, 543-547

maximum, 535-537

moderate, 532-534

reinforcement of, 265-266

extraoral appliance in, usage of, 296 production of, 296f requirements of, 296 resistance, 265 situations, 265-267