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European politics Tim Bale

European politics Tim Bale

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List of illustrative material \ ix
List of abbreviations and acronyms \ xiii
Introduction xvii
Why European politics? ixvii
Why this book? xviii
Keeping it real - and up to date ? xix
Where is it going? , xxi
Getting started |xxii
1 Europe: a continent in the making
People into empires
Empires into nations j
Nations into states States into blocs The new Europe
Europe’s economy: rich in variation Society: class and gender still matter In theory if not in practice: religion in Europe
Composition and identity: multiethnic,;
multinational — and European? Learning resources Executive summary
2 The end of the nation state? Federalism, devolution and the European Union
Stateless nations
Belgium: federal solution or slippery slope?
‘Asymmetrical’ federalism: Spain The UK: another hybrid France: no longer quite so indivisible j The European Union and the end of sovereignty?
Origins and enlargement Increasing integration and institutional reform ,
Integration via economics: EMU Integration by law An EU constitution?
The end of the nation state?
Learning resources Executive summary
From government to governance: running the state, making policy
and policing the constitution 57
Pushing things out to the periphery:
decentralization 58
‘More control over less’: central
government reform 62
Policy-making: sectors and styles 68
The booming third branch of government: the judicialization of politics 73
Learning resources 80
Executive summary 80
4 Governments and parliaments:
a long way from equality 81
The head of state 81
Prime minister, cabinet and
parliamentary government 83
Permutations of parliamentary
government 85
Government duration and stability 88
Dividing the spoils: portfolio
allocation 89
Governing 90
Parliaments: one house or two? 92
Parliaments: hiring and firing 93
Parliaments: the production of law 95
Parliaments: scrutiny and oversight 98
Parliament and government: the
European level 99
Parliaments, power and parties 101
Learning resources 103
Executive summary 103
5 Parties: how the past affects the
present, and an uncertain fixture 105
What are parties and what are they for? 105
Organization 106
Party systems and party families 106
The bases of party systems: social
and institutional, luck and skill 122
Party system change? 123
Are parties in decline? 127