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Fractures and Joint Injuries Jones

Fractures and Joint Injuries Jones

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1 Healing of Injury 1
 
Principles of wound healing 2. Factors interfering with healing 6. Experimental work 6. Clinical aspects 7,
 
2 Repair of Fractures 11
 
Histological appearance 11. Experimental work on fracture healing 12. Pathological fractures 15. Rates of repair 17. Delayed union and non-union 22. Slow union from poor blood supply 25. Slow union from excessive traction 28. Delayed union from inadequate immobilisation 31. Delayed union from infection 42. Non-union from interposition of soft parts 48.
 
3 Repair of Ligament Injuries 51
 
Pathology of ligamentous repair 51. Types of ligament injury 52. Associated injuries 53. Diagnosis of ligament injuries 58. Treatment 61.
 
4 Adhesions, Joint Stiffness and Traumatic Ossification 65
 
Causes of adhesions and joint stiffness 68. Stiffness of joints and Sudeck’s acute bone atrophy
 
79, Myositis and traumatic ossification 81. Types of pathological ossification 82. Traumatic subperiosteal ossification 83.
 
5 Systemic Effects of Injury 93
 
Written by Professor R. Shackman, F.R.C.S.
 
Haemodynamic response to injury 93. Haematological effects of injury 96. Metabolic effects of injury 97. Water and electrolyte metabolism 99. Acid-base change—acidosis and alkalosis 100. Endocrine responses to injury 101. Liver and kidney function after injury 102. Management of acute tubular necrosis of the kidney 103. Neurogenic and toxic factors 105. Management of systemic effects of injury 106. Management of incipient renal failure 109.
 
6 Early Management of the Injured 113
 
First examination 114. Early resuscitative measures 115. Essential ‘first aid’ 116. Second examination 120. Early management of fractures and joint injuries 123. Pneumatic splints 125. Antibiotic therapy 125. Precautions against tetanus 125. Vascular problems 128. Chest injuries 130. Abdominal injuries 138. Pelvic injuries 141. Fat embolism 142.
 
7 Head Injuries 146
 
Written by Walpole Lewin, M.A., M.S., F.R.C.S.
 
Emergency treatment 146. Examination 147. Investigations 148. Angiography 148. Ultrasonics 150. General management 150. The airway 151. Recovery 153. Failure to improve 154. Compound fractures 157. Simple depressed fracture 158. Signs and symptoms of cerebral compression 159. Extradural haematoma 159. Subdural haematoma 161. Brain swelling—use of urea and mannitol 162. Special methods of treatment 163. Epilepsy 164.
 
8 Injuries of the Chest and Abdomen 166
 
Written by M. A. Birnstingf M.S., F.R.C.S.
 
Fractures of ribs 166. Stove-in chest 168. Traumatic pneumothorax and haemothorax 170. Rupture of diaphragm 174. Summary of management of chest injuries 175. Abdominal injuries 176. Diagnosis of visceral injury 176. Technique of emergency laparotomy 177. Injury to liver 178. Injury to spleen 181. Injury to pancreas 182. Injury to gut 182. Seat belt injuries 184. Injury to kidney 184. Injury to bladder and urethra 185.

 

9 Vascular Injuries
 
Revised by M. A. Birnstingl, M.S., F.R.C.S.
 
Acute arterial ischaemia 192. Volkmann’s ischaemic contracture 195. Other complications of arterial ischaemia 201. Types of arterial injury 202. Closed injuries 203. Subfascial compression syndromes 206. Diagnosis of acute arterial insufficiency 206. Management of arterial injuries 207. Techniques of arterial repair 216. Replantation of severed extremities 219. Management of pulsating haematoma and arteriovenous fistula 220. Cold injury 221.
 
10 Nerve Injuries 228
 
Revised by D. M. Brooks, M.A., F.R.C.S.
 
Types of nerve injury 228. Nerve injuries in wounds 229. Nerve repair 230. Nerve grafting 232. Nerve injuries in dosed fractures and dislocations 233. Brachial plexus injuries 234. Circumflex paralysis 235. Radial paralysis 236. Median paralysis 237. Ulnar paralysis 239. Sciatic paralysis 244. Lateral and medial popliteal paralysis 246.
 
11 Clinical and Radiographic Diagnosis 249
 
Revised by Lipmann Kessel, M.B.E., M.C., F.R.C.S.
 
Clinical diagnosis 249. Diagnosis of injury to soft parts 249. Radiographic diagnosis 251. Spedal radiographic projections 257. Radiographs in different positions of the joint 259. Diagnosis of union of a fracture 267. Danger of X-rays 270.
 
12 Manipulative Reduction of Fractures 273
 
Manipulative reduction and immobilisation 273. Time of reduction 275. Plaster of Paris technique 277. Complications of plaster immobilisation 285. Manipulative reduction and continuous traction 291. Dangers of traction and distraction 296. Mechanical reduction and skeletal transfixion 297.
 
13 Operative Approaches 300
 
The shoulder 300. The shaft of the humerus 307. The elbow 314. The radius 320. The ulna 320. The wrist 324. The hip 328. The shaft of the femur 337. The knee 342. The tibia 346. The ankle 350. The spine 355.
 
14 Operative Reduction of Fractures 362
 
Optimal time for operative reduction 362. Indications for operative reduction 363. Aseptic technique 366. Technique of open reduction of fractures 371. Methods of internal fixation 373. Intramedullary nailing 383. A warning about medico-legal problems 388.
 
15 Open and Infected Injuries of Bones and Joints 391
 
Excision of the wound 391. Burying foreign bodies 394. Management of wounds of joints 397. Skin closure 401. Immobilisation 403. Control of infection 405. Gas-gangrene infection 406. Tetanus infection 407. Actinomycosis infection 409. The infected fracture 409. Management of the infected Kuntscher nail 410. Final control of infection by sequestrectomy 412. Replacement of unstable scars 416. Amputations for open and infected injuries 429. Upper limb amputations 433. Lower limb amputations 435.
 
16 Transplantation of Bone 441
 
History of bone grafting 441. Fate of transplanted bone 445. Homogenous and heterogenous grafts 447. Bone banks 448. Indications for bone grafting 449. Cortical bone grafting 454. Technique of cancellous bone grafting 457.
 
17 Fractures in Children 487
 
Written by A. Catterall, M.Chir., F.R.C.S.
 
Birth fractures 487. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle 488. Depressed fracture of the skull 490. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia 492. The ‘battered baby’ syndrome 500. Epiphyseal injuries 502. Fractures of the shafts of long bones 506. Pathological fractures 507. Fractures associated with osteogenesis imperfecta 513.
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