# Fundamentals of Electric Circuits 3rd Edition

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reface v Acknowledgments vi A Note to the Student ix
PART 1 I DC CIRCUITS 1
Chapter 1 Basic Concepts

3
3.7 Nodal Versus Mesh Analysis 99

3.8 Circuit Analysis with PSpice 100 t3.9 Applications: DC Transistor Circuits

3.10 Summary 107

Review Questions 107 Problems 109 Comprehensive Problems 117
1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Systems of Units 4

1.3 Charge and Current 6

1.4 Voltage 9

1.5 Power and Energy 10

1.6 Circuit Elements 13 11.7 Applications 15
Chapter 4
1.7.1 TV Picture Tube

1.7.2 Electricity Bills

11.8 Problem Solving 18

1.9 Summary 21 Review Questions 22 Problems 23 Comprehensive Problems 25
Chapter 2
Basic Laws
27
2.1 Introduction 28

2.2 Ohm’s Laws 28

t2.3 Nodes, Branches, and Loops 33

2.4 Kirchhoff’s Laws 35

2.5 Series Resistors and Voltage Division

2.6 Parallel Resistors and Current Division

t2.7 Wye-Delta Transformations 50 t2.8 Applications 54
4.1 Introduction 120

4.2 Linearity Property 120

4.3 Superposition 122

4.4 Source Transformation 127

4.5 Thevenin’s Theorem 131

4.6 Norton’s Theorem 137

t4.7 Derivations of Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 140

4.8 Maximum Power Transfer 142

4.9 Verifying Circuit Theorems

with PSpice 144 14.10 Applications 147

4.10.1 Source Modeling

4.10.2 Resistance Measurement

4.11 Summary 153

Review Questions 153 Problems 154 Comprehensive Problems 162
41

42
Chapter 5
Operational Amplifiers
165
2.8.1 Lighting Systems

2.8.2 Design of DC Meters

2.9 Summary 60

Review Questions 61 Problems 63 Comprehensive Problems 72
Chapter 3
Methods of Analysis
75
3.1 Introduction 76

3.2 Nodal Analysis 76

3.3 Nodal Analysis with Voltage Sources

3.4 Mesh Analysis 87

3.5 Mesh Analysis with Current Sources t3.6 Nodal and Mesh Analyses by Inspection
5.1 Introduction 166

5.2 Operational Amplifiers 166

5.3 Ideal Op Amp 170

5.4 Inverting Amplifier 171

5.5 Noninverting Amplifier 174

5.6 Summing Amplifier 176

5.7 Difference Amplifier 177

5.8 Cascaded Op Amp Circuits 181

5.9 Op Amp Circuit Analysis

with PSpice 183 t5.I0 Applications 185
82

92

95
5.10.1 Digital-to Analog Converter

5.10.2 Instrumentation Amplifiers

5.11 Summary 188

Review Questions 190 Problems 191 Comprehensive Problems 200

Chapter 6 Capacitors and Inductors 201
6.1 Introduction 202
6.2 Capacitors 202
6.3 Series and Parallel Capacitors 208
6.4 Inductors 211
6.5 Series and Parallel Inductors 216
16.6 Applications 219
6.6.1 Integrator
6.6.2 Differentiator
6.6.3 Analog Computer
6.7 Summary 225
Review Questions 226
Problems 227
Comprehensive Problems 235
Chapter 7 First-Order Circuits 237
7.1 Introduction 238
7.2 The Source-free RC Circuit 238
7.3 The Source-free RL Circuit 243

8.12 Summary 340
Review Questions 340
Problems 341
Comprehensive Problems 350
PART 2 AC CIRCUITS 351
Chapter 9 Sinusoids and Phasors 353
9.1 Introduction 354
9.2 Sinusoids 355
9.3 Phasors 359
9.4 Phasor Relationships for Circuit

9.5

9.6

9.7 19.8
Chapter 10
393
Second-Order Circuits
8.1 Introduction 296

8.2 Finding Initial and Final Values 296

8.3 The Source-Free Series RLC Circuit 301

8.4 The Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit 308

8.5 Step Response of a Series RLC

Circuit 314

8.6 Step Response of a Parallel RLC

Circuit 319
10.1 Introduction 394

10.2 Nodal Analysis 394

10.3 Mesh Analysis 397

10.4 Superposition Theorem 400

10.5 Source Transformation 404

10.6 Thevenin and Norton Equivalent

Circuits 406

10.7 Op Amp AC Circuits 411

10.8 AC Analysis Using PSpice 413

110.9 Applications 416

10.9.1 Capacitance Multiplier

10.9.2 Oscillators

10.10 Summary 420 Review Questions 421 Problems 422
AC Power Analysis
7.9.1 Delay Circuits

7.9.2 Photoflash Unit

7.9.3 Relay Circuits

7.9.4 Automobile Ignition Circuit

7.10 Summary 282

Review Questions 283 Problems 284 Comprehensive Problems 293
Chapter 8
295
Chapter 11
433
8.7 General Second-Order Circuits 322

8.8 Second-Order Op Amp Circuits 327

8.9 PSpice Analysis of RLC Circuits 330

18.10 Duality 332

18.11 Applications 336

8.11.1 Automobile Ignition System

8.11.2 Smoothing Circuits

11.8 111.9

11.9.1

11.9.2

11.10 Summary Review Questions 465 Problems 466 Comprehensive Problems
Power Factor Correction 457 Applications 459
Power Measurement Electricity Consumption Cost

464
474
Chapter 12
Three-Phase Circuits
477
12.1 Introduction 478

12.2 Balanced Three-Phase Voltages 479

12.3 Balanced Wye-Wye Connection 482

12.4 Balanced Wye-Delta Connection 486

12.5 Balanced Delta-Delta Connection 488

12.6 Balanced Delta-Wye Connection 490

12.7 Power in a Balanced System 494

112.8 Unbalanced Three-Phase Systems 500

12.9 PSpice for Three-Phase Circuits 504

112.10 Applications 508
12.10.1 Three-Phase Power Measurement

12.10.2 Residential Wiring

12.11 Summary 516 Review Questions 517 Problems 518 Comprehensive Problems 525
14.4 Bode Plots 589
14.5 Series Resonance 600
14.6 Parallel Resonance 605
14.7 Passive Filters 608
14.7.1 Lowpass Filter  14.7.2 Highpass Filter  14.7.3 Bandpass Filter  14.7.4 Bandstop Filter
14.8 Active Filters 613
14.8.1 First-Order Lowpass Filter  14.8.2 First-Order Highpass Filter  14.8.3 Bandpass Filter  14.8.4 Bandreject (or Notch) Filter
114.9 Scaling 619
14.9.1 Magnitude Scaling  14.9.2 Frequency Scaling  14.9.3 Magnitude and Frequency Scaling
14.10  114.11 Frequency Response Using PSpice 622 Applications 626
14.12 Summary 631
Review Questions 633 Problems 633 Comprehensive Problems 640

Chapter 13
Magnetically Coupled Circuits
527
13.1 Introduction 528

13.2 Mutual Inductance 528

13.3 Energy in a Coupled Circuit 535

13.4 Linear Transformers 539

13.5 Ideal Transformers 545

13.6 Ideal Autotransformers 552

113.7 Three-Phase Transformers 556 13.8 PSpice Analysis of Magnetically Coupled Circuits 559

113.9 Applications 563
13.9.1 Transformer as an Isolation Device

13.9.2 Transformer as a Matching Device

13.9.3 Power Distribution
Frequency Response
14.1 Introduction 584
14.2 Transfer Function 584
114.3 The Decibel Scale 588

115.8 Application to Integrodifferential

Equations 685

115.9 Applications 687

15.9.1 Network Stability

15.9.2 Network Synthesis

15.10 Summary 694
13.10 Summary 569 Review Questions 570 Problems 571 Comprehensive Problems 582
Chapter 14
583
PART 3 ADVANCED CIRCUIT ANALYSIS 643
Chapter 15 The Laplace Transform 645
15.1 Introduction 646
15.2 Definition of the Laplace
Transform 646
15.3 Properties of the Laplace
Transform 649
15.4 The Inverse Laplace Transform
15.4.1 Simple Poles  15.4.2 Repeated Poles  15.4.3 Complex Poles
15.5 Applicaton to Circuits 666
15.6 Transfer Functions 672
15.7 The Convolution Integral 677
17.8 Summary 789

Review Questions 790 Problems 790 Comprehensive Problems 794
Two-Port Networks
18.1 Introduction 796

18.2 Impedance Parameters 796

18.4 Hybrid Parameters 804

18.5 Transmission Parameters 809

118.6 Relationships between Parameters 814

18.7 Interconnection of Networks 817

18.8 Computing Two-Port Parameters Using

PSpice 823

118.9 Applications 826
18.9.1 Transistor Circuits

18.10 Summary 833

Review Questions 834 Problems 835 Comprehensive Problems 844
Appendix A Solution of Simultaneous Equations Using Cramer’s Rule 845

Appendix B Complex Numbers 851

Appendix C Mathematical Formulas 859

Appendix D PSpice for Windows 865

Appendix E Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 893

Selected Bibliography 929

Index 933

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