# GMAT Critical Reasoning Bible

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Contents

Chapter One: Introduction

Introduction 3

A Brief Overview of the GMAT 4

The Analytical Writing Assessment 6

The Integrated Reasoning Section 6

The Quantitative Section 6

The Verbal Section    7

Experimental Questions 7

The GMAT CAT Format 8

Special GMAT CAT Considerations   9

Computers and Noteboards 12

The GMAT Scoring Scale r 13

The GMAT Percentile Table 13

The Use of the GMAT 14

CHAPTER TWO: THE BASICS OF CRITICAL REASONING

GMAT Critical Reasoning 17

Critical Reasoning Question Directions 17

The Parts of a Critical Reasoning Question 18

Approaching the Questions 19

Analyzing the Stimulus 21

The Range of Stimulus Topics 22

GMAT Vocabulary 23

Arguments versus Fact Sets   25

Identifying Premises and Conclusions 26

One Confusing Indicator Form 29

Premise and Conclusion Recognition Mini-Drill     30

Counter-Premise Indicators 34

Additional Premise and Counter-Premise Recognition Mini-Drill 35

Recognizing Conclusions Without Indicators 37

Complex Arguments 38

A Commonly Used Construction 40

Truth versus Validity 41

Argument Analysis 42

Inferences and Assumptions - 44

The Mind of a GMAT Author 44

Tracking indicators and Concepts 47

Scope 47

Fluidity of Analysis and Concept Application 48

Final Chapter Note 48

Premise and Conclusion Analysis Drill 49

CHAPTER THREE: THE QUESTION STEM AND ANSWER CHOICES

The Question Stem 57

Analyzing the Question Stem 57

The Ten Critical Reasoning Question Types 58

Question Type Notes .66

Question Type Variety 67

“Most” in Question Stems 67

Question Stem Wording Variations 68

Identify the Question Stem Drill ....69

“Except” and “Least” in Question Stems 73

Except and LeasHdentify the Question Stem Mini-Drill 76

Question Approach Review 82

Final Chapter Note 84

CHAPTER FOUR: MUST BE TRUE QUESTIONS

Must Be True Questions 87

Prephrasing with Must Be True Questions 88

Returning to the Stimulus 92

New Information and the Idea Umbrella 92

Primary Objective #4 and Modifier Words Revisited 94

Language: Negatives and Double Negatives   96

Correct Answers in Must Be True Questions Reviewed 98

Incorrect Answers in Must Be True Questions   98

Stimulus Opinions versus Assertions 101

Conditional Reasoning 102

Three Logical Features of Conditional Reasoning 103

Valid and Invalid Statements   104

Valid and Invalid Statement Recognition Mini-Drill   107

The Multiplicity of Indicator Words 109

How to Recognize Conditionality 111

Sufficient and Necessary Diagramming Drill 112

Final Note 116

Must Be True Question Type Review 117

Must Be True Question Problem Set 119

Chapter Five: Main Point Questions

Main Point Questions 127

Fill in the Blank Questions 132

Main Point—Fill in the Blank Questions 132

Final Chapter Note 133

Main Point Question Type Review 134

Fill in the Blank Question Type Review 134

Must Be True and Main Point Question Stem Mini-Drill 135

Main Point Question Problem Set ? 137

CHAPTER SIX: WEAKEN QUESTIONS

Weaken Questions 143

How to Weaken an Argument 145

Common Weakening Scenarios 147

Weaken Questions Analyzed   149

Final Note 153

Weaken Question Type Review 154

Weaken Question Problem Set 155

CHAPTER SEVEN: CAUSE AND EFFECT REASONING

What is Causality? 165

How to Recognize Causality 165

Causality in the Conclusion versus Causality in the Premises 166

Situations That Can Lead to Errors of Causality 168

The Central Assumption of Causal Conclusions 169

How to Attack a Causal Conclusion 170

Diagramming Causality 171

Two Cause and Effect Problems Analyzed 172

Causal Reasoning Review 176

Final Note   177

Causal Reasoning Problem Set 178

CHAPTER EIGHT: STRENGTHEN AND ASSUMPTION QUESTIONS
The Second Family 187

The Difference Between Strengthen and Assumption Questions 188

Strengthen Questions   189

How to Strengthen an Argument 190

Strengthen Questions Analyzed 192

Causality and Strengthen Questions 194

Weaken vs Strengthen Questions 197

Strengthen Question Type Review 198

Strengthen Question Problem Set 199

Assumption Questions 202

The Supporter/Defender Assumption Model™ 204

The Assumption Negation Technique™ 211

Negating Statements 212

Logical Opposition 212

Statement Negation Drill 215

Statement Negation Drill Answer Key 216

Three Quirks of Assumption Question Answer Choices 217

Assumptions and Causality ...218

Assumption—Fill in the Blank Questions 220

Assumption Question Type Review 222

Assumption Question Problem Set 224
CHAPTER NINE: RESOLVE THE PARADOX QUESTIONS

Stimulus Peculiarities 229

Question Stem Features 230

Active Resolution 231