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guidelines for predicting crop water requirements

guidelines for predicting crop water requirements

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Summary iii
 
Table of Contents v
 
List of Tables vii
 
List of Figures ix
 
Conversion Factors xi
 
Climatological Nomenclature xii
 
PART I - CALCULATION OF CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS 1
1. CALCULATION OF REFERENCE CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 3
 
1.1 Blaney-Criddle Method 3
 
1.2 Radiation Method 8
 
1.3 Penman Method 15
 
1.4- Pan Evaporation Method 30
 
2. SELECTION OF CROP COEFFICIENT 35
 
3. FACTORS AFFECTING CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 55
 
3. 1 Climate: variation with time, distance, size of irrigation
 
development, advection, altitude 55
 
3.2 Soil Water: level of available soil water, groundwater, salinity,
 
water and crop yields 59
 
3.3 Method of irrigation: surface, sprinkler, drip or trickle, subsurface irrigation 62
 
3.4- Cultural Practices : fertilizers, plant population, tillage, mulching,
 
windbreaks, anti-transplants 65
 
PART II - APPLICATION OF CROP WATER REQUIREMENT DATA IN IDENTIFICATION , DESIGN AND OPERATION OF IRRIGATION PROTECTS 67
1. PROJECT IDENTIFICATION AND PRELIMINARY PLANNING 68
 
1. 1 Introduction 68
 
1.2 Seasonal and Peak Project Supply Requirements 69
 
1.2.1 Crop water requirements 71
 
1.2.2 Net irrigation requirements : effective rainfall, groundwater
 
contribution, stored soil water 72
 
1.2.3 Irrigation requirements : leaching requirements , irrigation
 
efficiency 76
 
1.2.4 Summary of calculation of seasonal and peak project supply
 
requirements 81
 
2. PROJECT DESIGN 83
 
2.1 Introduction 83
 
2.2 Field and Project Supply Schedules 83
 
2.2.1 Field irrigation schedules: depth of irrigation application, irrigation application interval, calculation of field irrigation
 
schedules 86
 
2.2.2 Field irrigation supply schedules: surface, sprinkler drip 90
 
2.2.3 Design and operation of supply system: continuous, rotational,
 
supply on demand 96
 
2.2.4 Summary calculation of project design and operation 100
 
3. PROJECT OPERATION 102
 
3.1 Refinement of Field Supply Schedules: adaptive research, data
 
collection, project monitoring 102
 
3.2 Application of Field Irrigation Data 104
 
Appendix I Persons and Institutes Consulted 107
 
Appendix II Background and Development of Methods to Predict Reference Crop
 
Evapotranspiration 108
 
Appendix III Computer Programme for Estimation of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration 120
 
Appendix IV Glossary 133
 
Appendix V References 137
 
Appendix VI Constants for the Radiation Equation Rs = (a + b n/N)Ra 144
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