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International marketing strategy fifth edition Lowe

International marketing strategy fifth edition Lowe

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9.20лв


LIST OF FIGURES, TABLES, ILLUSTRATIONS AND DILEMMAS
LIST OF FIGURES
 
1.1 The environmental influences on international marketing 7
 
1.2 The Big Mac index 13
 
1.3 Aspects of international market planning 25
 
1.4 Some typical stakeholders of multinational enterprises 2Б
 
1.5 Essential elements of the international marketing plan 30
 
2.1 Global trade flows 38
 
2.2 Market entry barriers 45
 
2.3 Regional trading areas of the world 55
 
3.1 A cultural framework 24
 
3.2 Cultural influences on buyer behaviour 80
 
3.3 The contextual continuum of differing cultures 86
 
3.4 Power distance/individualism dimensions across cultures 88
 
4.1 Nature of competition and level of market development 108
 
4.2 The four-risk matrix 109
 
4.3 Business portfolio matrix 111
 
4.4 Market profile analysis 118
 
4.5 The international marketing research process 124
 
5.1 The multilateral aspects of the internationalisation process ISO
 
5.2 Geographic development of SMEs 161
 
5.3 Growth for niche marketers 162
 
5.4 McKinsey ?S framework 16?
 
5.5 Ansoff growth matrix 120
 
5.6 Factors affecting SME internationalisation 121
 
5.7 Product structure 124
 
5.8 Geographic structure 125
 
5.9 Levels of internationalisation 128
 
5.10 Characteristics of successful international business-to-business marketers 12?
 
6.1 The international competitive posture matrix 198
 
6.2 Alternative worldwide strategies 199
 
6.3 Globalisation push and pull factors 201
 
6.4 The conceptual framework of a firm 215
 
6.5 Functions of different management levels 216
 
6.6 Development of strategy 212
6.7 International planning problems 223
 
7.1 Market entry methods and the levels of involvement in international markets 232
 
7.2 Risk and control in market entry 233
 
7.3 The components of the export marketing mix 239
 
8.1 The product-service continuum 265
 
8.2 The three elements of the product or service 269
 
8.3 The international product life cycle 280
 
8.4 The portfolio approach to strategic analysis (BCG matrix] 282
 
8.5 The brand value equation 286
 
8.6 Brand valuation 289
 
8.7 New product categories 292
 
8.8 The arguments for and against centralisation of R and D 296
 
9.1 External, internal and interactive marketing 309
 
9.2 The dimensions of external marketing communications 310
 
9.3 Push and pull strategies 318
 
9.4 Internal and external international communications programmes 322
 
10.1 Distribution channels for business goods 349
 
10.2 Distribution channels for consumer goods 349
 
10.3 Global retailer categories 364
 
10.4 The export order and physical process 375
 
11.1 Three types of grey market 400
 
11.2 A framework for selecting a coordination method 402
 
11.3 The export order process 412
 
12.1 The vicious circle of technology and competitive advantage 420
 
LIST OF TABLES
 
1.1 The world’s ten mega cities in 2015 10
 
2.1 Top 10 world exporters in merchandise, 2007 39
 
2.2 Percentage change on previous year in real GDP/GNP and consumer prices 40
 
2.3 Trade balances in merchandise trade 41
 
2.4 The heavy burden of debt 49
 
2.5 Main types of trade associations 53

 

3.1 Cultural values and their relevance to consumer behaviour ?6
 
3.2 The main silent languages in overseas business 79
 
3.3 Differences in buyer-seller relationships styles 95
 
4.1 The 12C framework for analysing international markets 118
 
4.2 Online databases 120
 
4.3 A comparative evaluation of survey methods for use in international marketing research 131
 
5.1 The difference between exporting and international niche marketing 155
 
6.1 The top 15 transnational companies by foreign assets 2005 189
 
6.2 Top 10 companies: index of transnationality 2005 190
 
6.3 Top 12 companies from developing economies: index of transnationality 2005 ranked by foreign assets 191
 
6.4 The global pyramid of wealth 213
 
7.1 Who provides what in partnerships between firms from developed and developing countries 254
 
8.1 The best global brands 200Б 288
 
9.1 Top 10 global advertisers 327
 
9.2 The characteristics of the Internet - the Six fs 336
 
10.1 Retailers - typical differences between developing and developed countries 360
 
10.2 Top ten global food retailers 363
 
11.1 The effect of additional export sales on contribution 387
 
11.2 Escalation of costs through exporting 388
 
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
 
1.1 The beautification of the ageing baby boomers 9
 
1.2 When is a Parma ham not a Parma ham? 11
 
1.3 Cadbury’s in political faux pas 17
 
1.4 Indian brands emerge from the shadows 18
 
1.5 Divine Chocolate Ltd 23
 
1.6 Fisherman’s Friend 32
 
2.1 The comparative advantage of China and India 43
 
2.2 To protect or not to protect? 47
 
2.3 Skoda has the last laugh 59
 
2.4 The Irish gem 60
 
2.5 The Asian blue chip tigers 63
 
3.1 Cadbury’s: Lady Purple or Aunty Violet? 75
 
3.2 Written language: but what does it mean? 78
 
3.3 Localising websites 79
 
3.4 France: image vs reality? 88
 
3.5 The use of humour in international advertising 90
 
3.6 How the ethical consumer makes decisions 97
 
4.1 Dr Martens goes ethnographic 113
 
4.2 Goodyear global segmentation research 115
4.3 Statistics in Siberia 122
 
4.4 Use of multi-client studies 126
 
4.5 The use of qualitative research to overhaul global brand image 129
 
5.1 Fairtrade networking to supply the supermarkets 149
 
5.2 Tariff reduction prompts innovation 151
 
5.3 Salmon or eggs: which comes first? 153
 
5.4 Beatson Clark: defining a niche in a commodity market 156
 
5.5 Creating a mobile music software niche 157
 
5.6 Family networking 164
 
5.2 Azim Premji-from cooking oil to IT billionaire 168
 
6.1 A new direction for IBM and Lenovo 192
 
6.2 Gillette planning a close shave 197
 
6.3 ABB: a new rfjpdel of global entrepreneurialism - good while it lasted? 203
 
6.4 Airbus 205
 
6.5 LG innovating to the top 210
 
6.6 Cars designed for emerging markets 214
 
6.7 Mittal: ready to iron out a possible culture clash? 226
 
7.1 In search of the 99p bargain 235
 
7.2 The future of Sogo shosha 238
 
7.3 High-flying Brazilian exporter 240
 
7.4 Mr Men: a licence to storm the US market 248
 
7.5 HSBC buying problems in the US 251
 
7.6 Absolut privatisation in Sweden 252
 
7.7 Chrysler: dissolving a merger 253
 
7.8 Buying into a joint venture to win work in the future 255
 
8.1 Flying low cost with frills or no frills 267
 
8.2 Apple’s lead challenged 271
 
8.3 Tiger Balm: relieving the pains of warlords and sports stars 281
 
8.4 Core competence and centralisation in consumer products 283
 
8.5 Cooperation after a century of fighting 284
 
8.6 The sincerest form of flattery 291
 
8.7 China promoting IP rights 293
 
8.8 Restarting the innovation culture at Motorola 297
 
9.1 Corporate identity and the Olympic Games 311
 
9.2 Negativity in advertising 313
 
9.3 Pepsi-promotingto tribes 317
 
9.4 Dove uses consumer-created ads 328
 
9.5 James Bond - licensed to sell 332
 
9.6 Charity begins in the neighbourhood 335
 
9.7 Corruption concerns at BAE 336
 
10.1 Internet retailing helps Western countries penetrate Japan 351
 
10.2 Thai military leaders restrict the expansion of Tesco 353
 
10.3 Dell Computers 357
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